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Flora

BOTANICAL SURVEY OF CUSKINNY MARSH NATURE RESERVE

The following report was prepared by Tony O’Mahony following a single visit in June 1993.

General Description

This coastal reserve is roughly rectangular in shape (save for an attenuated northwesterly strip), while its longer axis is orientated in a NW-SE direction. The reserve (which consists of Cuskinny Lake and its marshy, plant-fringed margins) is bounded to the north, west and south by roadways and to the east by an earth-and-stone bank and a backing strip of deciduous woodland.

The reserve is very attractive in appearance, and the public has ready access to the lake from the western and southern roadways. However the woodland on the eastern side of the lake seems unfrequented, and it is recommended that this situation be maintained. In any case the marshy nature of the woodland makes it unsuitable for public use.

The range of plant habitats include roadways, coastal rocks and walls, hedge banks, woodland, damp meadows, marshy ground, freshwater streams, and brackish lagoon (i.e. the lake. These habitats in turn provide a corresponding diversity of plant species. Nevertheless, the number of plant species recorded on my June 1991 visit was quite low (c.135 species). While a number of other species undoubtedly remain to be added to the list, the low diversity of species can be satisfactorily accounted for by the imbalance in size of the respective habitats. For example Cuskinny Lake dominates the reserve, yet its flora is depauperate, consisting of an abundance of relatively few salt-tolerant (halophytic) plants. By contrast the woodland and roadway habitats are merely linear strips and thus their flora is necessarily limited.

As would be expected, the somewhat remote woodland shows the least sign of disturbance by man. In stark contrast the westerly roadway margins have been greatly disturbed, as is evident by the presence here in abundance of many noxious weedy plants such as Creeping Thistle (Cirsius arvensis), Spear Thistle (Cirsium vulgare), Smooth Sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), Butter Dock (Rumex obtusiflorius) and Rat-tail Plantain (Plantago major) etc. Additionally, considerable rubble-deposition has taken place in part of zone B in the past, raising the level of the ground and superimposing a warm, dry, porous habitat over a periodically inundated, saline meadow. The present day flora of this zone therefore has two quite seperate elements - a brackish meadow flora representative of warm dry habitats, which includes such species as Oxe-eye Daisy (Leucanthemum vulgare), Elder (Sambucus nigra), Ash (Fraxinus excelsior) and the beautiful naturalised shrub, Purple Buddleia (Buddleja davidii).

Of the few garden plants that have become naturalised in the reserve, three are a welcome addition. The spring flowering Three-cornered Leek (Allium triquetrum) with its clusters of white pendulous flowers, the summer flowering Purple Buddleia or Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) with its white felted leaf undersides and long spikes of purple flowers that, as the name suggests, are a great attraction for butterflies, and lastly, the autumn flowering montbretia (Tritonia x crocosmiflora) with its brilliant clusters of orange - or amber-coloured flowers and sword shaped leaves.

The two remaining naturalised plants are far from desirable and their presence could well be done without. Of these Travellers Joy (Clematis vitalba) is a woody climber that scrambles over other vegetation and produces a dense carpet of green leaves that obliterates everything else! At present it is confined to the very north-westerly corner of the reserve (the small bridge carrying the main road to Belvelly Bridge?) but in time it could well become a problem here. Particularly worrying however, is the abundance of Winter Heliotrope (Petasites fragrans) along the western roadway. This winter flowering plant was introduced into Ireland and Britain from continental Europe around 1800. The object of the introduction was to extend the honey-producing season (its spikes of beautifully vanilla-scented are produced from November to January). Given its rampagious habit however, Winter Heliotrope soon fell out of favour, was ousted from gardens, and quickly became established in the wild. Today it poses a grave threat to our native flora, Its carpets of ground hugging, rounded leaves smothering most other plants. With its stout underground rhizomes, this pestilential plant can quickly colonise new sites, ranging from woodland and bone dry pastures and roadsides, to moderately damp habitats - which makes it a veritable "superweed"! Consequently, eradication of this species should be given top priority!.

Lastly some fine tree specimens occur through out the reserve. For example, the woodland has some massive Ash (Fraxinus), Oak (Quercus robur) and the far more frequent Q. petraea, and *Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) while the western roadway (embracing part of Zone B, D,and F) has excellent specimens of Oak, Crack Willow (Salix fragilis), White Willow (S. alba) and Common Sallow (Salix cinerea).

Cuskinny Marsh Nature Reserve: General Plant List

Note: In the case of naturalised plant species, an asterisk* precedes the name.

Flowering plants

1. Three-cornered Leek* Allium triquetrum
2. Wild Angelica Angelica sylvestris
3. Fools' WatercressApium nodiflorum
4. Sea Pink/ThriftArmeria maritima
5. Lesser Burdock Arctium minus agg.
6. Sea Orache Atriplex prostrata agg
7. Common Daisy Bellis perennis
8. Sea Beet Beta maritima
9. Greater Bindweed Calystegia sepium
10. Water Starwort Callitriche agg
11. Lady's Smock Cardamine pratensis
12. Black Knapweed Centaurea nigra
13. Mouse-ear Chickweed Cerastium fontanum Common
14.Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
15. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
16. Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare
17. Opposite -Leaved Gd Saxifrage Chrysosplenium oppositrifolium
18. Rock Samphire Crithmum maritimum
19. Wild Carrot Daucus carota
20. Foxglove Digitalis purpurea
21. Great Hairy Willowherb Epilobium hirsutum
22. Short Fruited Willowherb Epilobium obscurum
23. Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
24. Goosegrass/Cleavers Galium aparine
25. Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
26. Cut-leaved Cranesbill Geranium dissectum
27. Herb Robert Geranium robertianum
28. Herb Bennet Geum urbanum
29. Hogweed/Cow Parsnip Heracleum sphondylium
30. Cat's-Ear Hypochoeris radicata
31. Yellow Flag Iris pseudacorus
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
33. Saltmarsh Rush Juncus gerardii
34. Nipplewort Lapsana communis
35. Meadow Vetchling Lathyrus pratensis
36.Autumnal Hawkbit Leontodon autumnalis
37. Smith's Cress Lepidium heterophyllum
38. Ox-eye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare
39. Common Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus corniculatus
40. Marsh Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus uliginosus
41. Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi
42. Gipsywort Lycopus europeaus
43. Yellow Pimpernel Lysimachia nemorum
44. Black Medick Medicargo lupulina
45. Water Mint Mentha aquatica
46. Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides
47. Watercress Nastrutium agg.
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
49. Pellitory of the Wall Parietaria judaica
50.Winter Heliotrope* Petasites fragrans
51. Bucks'-Hrn Plaintain Plantago coronopus
52. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
53. Rat-tail Plantain Plantago major
54. Potentilla anserina
55. Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans
56. Primrose Primula vulgaris
57. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
58. Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula
59.Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
60. Common Sorrel Rumex acetosa
61. Curled Dock Rumex crispus
62. Butter Dock Rumex obtusiflorius
63. Wood Dock Rumex sanguineus
64. Brookweed Samolus valerandi
65. Glaucous Bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
66. Knotted Figwort Scrophularia nodosa
67. Marsh Ragwort Senecio aquaticus
68. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
69. Groundsel Senecio vulgaris
70.Spiny Milk-Thistle Sonchus asper
71.Field Milk-Thistle Sonchus arvensis
72. Smooth Milk-Thistle Sonchus oleraceus
73. Sea Club-Rush Scirpus maritimus
74. Hedge Mustard Sisymbrium officinale
75.Alexanders* Smyrnium olusatrum
76. Rock Sea-Spurrey Spergularia rupicola
77. Lesser Stitchwort Stellaria graminea
78. Chickweed Stellaria media
79. Hedge Woundwort Stachys sylvatica
80. Marsh Woundwort Stachys palustris
81. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale agg.
82. Wood Sage Teucrium scorodonia
83. Upright Hedge Parsley Torilis japonica
84. Yellow Trefoil Trifolium dubium
85. Red Clover Trifolium pratense
86. White Clover Trifolium repens
87. Sea Mayweed Tripleurospermum maritimum
88. Montbretia Tritonia x crocosmiflora
89. Wall Pennywort Umbilicus rupestris
90. Common Nettle Utrica dioica
91. Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis
92. Germander Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys
93. Buxbaum's Speedwell Veronica persica
94. Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca
95. Bush Vetch Vicia sepium
96. Common Dog Violet Viola riviniana

Trees, Shrubs and Woody Climbers

97. Sycamore Acer pseudoplanatus
98. Downy Birch Betula pubescens
99. Purple Buddleia *Buddleja davidii
100.Traveller's Joy *Clematis vitalba
101. Common Hawthorn Cataegus monogyna
102. Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior
103.Beech* Fagus sylvatica
104. Ivy Hedera helix
105. Holly Ilex aquifolium
106. Common Privat Ligustrum vulgare
107. Honeysuckle/Woodbine Lonicera periclymenum
108 Garden Apple* Malus domestica
109 Poplar* Populus taxon
110.Blackthorn Prunus spinosa
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
112. Durmast Oak Quercus robur
113. Common Dog Rose Rosa canina (s.s.)
114. Blackberry/Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg.
115. White Willow Salix alba
116. Common Sallow Salix cinerea
117. Crack Willow Salix fragilis
118. Common Elder Sambucus nigra
119. Woody Nightshade Solanum dulcamara
120. Common Furze/Gorse Ulex europaeus
121. Elm Ulmus agg.
122. Common Alder Alnus glutinosa
123.Horse Chestnut* Aesculus hippocastanum

Grasses

124. Sweet Vernal Grass Anthoxanthum odoratum
125. False Oat-Grass Arrhenatherum elatius
126.Common Bent Grass Agrostis capillaris
127. Fiorin Agrostis stolonifera
128. Wood Fls-Brome Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum
129. Cock's-Foot Grass Dactylis glomerata
130. Scutch Grass Elymus repens
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
132. Common Flote Grass Glyceria fluitans
133. Yorkshire Fog Grass Holcus lanatus
134. Creeping Soft-grass Holcus mollis
135.Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne
136.Comon Reed-Grass Phragmites australis
137. Annual Meadow Grass Poa annua
138. Rough Stalked Meadow Grass Poa trivialis

Sedges

139. Grey Sedge Carex divulsa
140. False Fox-Sedge Carex otrubae
141. Remote-Spiked Sedge Carex remota

Ferns

142. Mdenhair Spleenwort Asplenium trichomanes
143.Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina
144. Hard Fern Blechnum spicant
145. Scaly Male Fern Dryopteris affinis
146. Broad Buckler Fern Dryopteris dilatata
147. Hart's Tongue Fern Phyllitis scolopendrium
148. Polypody Fern (Hex) Polypodium interjectum
149. Soft Shield Fern Polystichum setiferum
150. Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum

Fern Allies
151. Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense

Flora by Botanical Survey Sections (See image above)

Zone A

Description: Incorporates Cuskinny Bridge, a stretch of roadway and a beach area to the south. Rock Samphire, Rock Spurry, Sea Mayweed, and Garden Apple seem to be confined to this zone.

4. Sea Pink/Thrift Armeria maritima
6. Sea OracheAtriplex prostrata agg.
8. Sea Beet Beta maritima
17. Rock Samphire Crithmum maritimum
30. Cat's-Ear Hypochaeris radicata
49. Pellitory o.t. Wall Parietaria judaica
61. Curled Dock Rumex crispus
62. Butter Dock Rumex obtusiflorius
72. Smooth Milk-Thistle Senchus oleraceus
75. Alexanders *Smyrnium olusatrum
76. Rock Sea-Spurrey Spergularia rupicola
85. Red Clover Trifolium pratense
86. White Clover Trifolium repens
87. Sea Mayweed Tripleurospermum maritimum
89. Wall Pennywort Umbilicus rupestris
104. Ivy Hedera helix
108.Garden Apple *Malus domestica
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
135. Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne

Zone B

Description: This zone is bounded to the north by the lake, to the east by the outlet stream, to the south by Cuskinny road and bridge and to the west by a roadway. Essentially a large damp brackish meadow, but with some rubble deposition at the western roadside which provides a contrasting, warm, porous habitat with its own distinctive flora.

6. Sea Orache Atriplex prostrata agg.
7. Common Daisy Bellis perennis
8. Sea Beet Beta maritima
14. Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
15. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
16. Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare
19. Wild Carrot Daucus carota
25. Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
30. Cat's-Ear Hypochaeris radicata
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
33. Saltmarsh Rush Juncus gerardii
34. Nipplewort Lapsana communis
38. Oxe-eye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare
39. Common Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus corniculatus
40. Marsh Bird’s Foot Trefoil Lotus uliginosus
44. Black Medick Medicargo lupulina
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
51. Bucks'-Hrn Plaintain Plantago coronopus
52. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
53. Rat-tail Plantain Plantago major
54. Silverweed Potentilla anserina
55. Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans
57. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
59. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
60. Common Sorrel Rumex acetosa
61. Curled Dock Rumex crispus
62. Butter Dock Rumex obtusiflorius
68. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
69. Groundsel Senecio vulgaris
73. Sea Club-Rush Scirpus maritimus
75. Alexanders *Smyrnium olusatrum
81. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale agg
90. Common Nettle Utrica dioica
92. Germander Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys
93. Buxbaum's Speedwell Veronica persica
99. Purple Buddleia *Buddleja davidii
102. Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
114. Blackberry/Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg
116. Common Sallow Salix cinerea
118. Common Elder Sambucus nigra
130. Scutch Grass Elymus repens
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
133. Yorkshire Fog Grass Holcus lanatus
135. Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne
139. Grey Sedge Carex divulsa

Zone C

Description: A large rectangular field that is bounded to the south by Cuskinny Bridge, to the west by the outlet stream, to the north by the lake and to the east by the woodland. The meadow is not as saline as its situation would suggest salt-tolerating (Halophytic) plant species mainly occurring along the margins of the lake and the outlet stream.
Freshwater plants such as Gipsywort and water forget-me-not occur in marshy ground fronting the woodland, while a large thicket is developing on the more elevated dry ground and consists of Brambles, Wild Rose, and Greater Bindweed etc.

3. Fools' Watercress Apium nodiflorum
6. Sea Orache Atriplex prostrata agg.
7. Common Daisy Bellis perennis
9. Greater Bindweed Calystegia sepium
11. Lady's Smock Cardamine pratensis
12. Black Knapweed Centaurea nigra
15. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
19. Wild Carrot Daucus carota
22. Short Fruited Willowherb Epilobium obscurum
23. Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
24. Goosegrass/Cleavers Galium aparine
25. Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
29. Hogweed/Cow Parsnip Heracleum sphondylium
31. Yellow Flag Iris pseudacorus
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
33. Saltmarsh Rush Juncus gerardii
35. Yellow Meadow VetchlingLathyrus pratensis
36. Autumnal Hawkbit Leontodon autumnalis
37. Smith's Cress Lepidium heterophyllum
38. Oxe-eye Daisy Leucanthemum vulgare
41. Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi
42. Gipsywort Lycopus europeaus
45. Water Mint Mentha aquatica
46. Water Forget-me-not Myosotis scorpioides
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
51. Bucks'-Hrn Plaintain Plantago coronopus
52. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
54. Silverweed Potentilla anserina
57. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
58. Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula
59. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
61. Curled Dock Rumex crispus
68. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
73. Sea Club-Rush Scirpus maritimus
75. Alexanders *Smyrnium olusatrum
81. Dandelion Taraxacum officinale agg.
88. Red Clover Trifolium pratense
86. White Clover Trifolium repens
87. Sea Mayweed Tripleurospermum maritimum
90. Common Nettle Utrica dioica
94. Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca
95. Bush Vetch Vicia sepium
110. Blackthorn Prunus spinosa
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
113. Common Dog RoseRosa canina (s.s.)
122. Common Alder Alnus glutinosa
124. Sweet Vernal GrassAnthoxanthum odoratum
125. False Oat-Grass Arrhenatherum elatius
126. Common Bent Grass Agrostis capillaris
127. Fiorin Agrostis stolonifera
129. Cock's-Foot Grass Dactylis glomerata
130. Scutch Grass Elymus repens
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
133. Yorkshire Fog Grass Holcus lanatus
135. Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne
137. Meadow Grass Poa annua Annual
138. Rough Stalked Meadow GrassPoa trivialis
141. Remote-Spiked Sedge Carex remota

Zone D

Description: A linear strip of ground - a sandwich of roadway margin, old canal, and a fringing reed bed, which border the western side of Cuskinny Lake. This zone is terminated to the north where the main road intersects with a farm boreen, while it joins Zone B at the Southwest margin of the lake. The roadway border wall supports some fern species, such as maidenhair Spleenwort. The bank wedged between the wall and the canal contains many mature tree species, such as Sessile Oak, Common Sallow, Crack Willow, and Sycamore, while the canal holds masses of the exotic looking Woody Nightshade with its trailing stems and clusters of miniature, cyclamen-like, purple flowers. It is accompanied by plenty of Common Valerian, a plant used medicinally to cure certain nervous disorders, and whose scent is a potent attraction for cats!

2. Wild Angelica Angelica sylvestris
3. Fools' Watercress Apium nodiflorum
5. . Lesser Burdock Arctium minus agg
7. Common Daisy Bellis perennis
9. Greater Bindweed Calystegia sepium
11. Lady's Smock Cardamine pratensis
14. Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
16. Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare
23. Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
24. Goosegrass/Cleavers Galium aparine
25. Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
26. Cut-leaved Cranesbill Geranium dissectum
27. Herb Robert Geranium robertianum
29. Hogweed/Cow Parsnip Heracleum sphondylium
31. Yellow Flag Iris pseudacorus
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
33. Saltmarsh Rush Juncus gerardii
34. Nipplewort Lapsana communis
35. Yellow Meadow Vetchling Lathyrus pratensis
42. Gipsywort Lycopus europeaus
45. Water Mint Mentha aquatica
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
49. Pellitory of the Wall Parietaria judaica
50. Winter Heliotrope* Petasites fragrans
51. Bucks'-Hrn Plaintain Plantago coronopus
52. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
53. Rat-tail Plantain Plantago major
54. Silverweed Potentilla anserina
55. Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans
57. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
59. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
60. Common Sorre lRumex acetosa
61. Curled Dock Rumex crispus
62. Butter Dock Rumex obtusiflorius
63. Wood Dock Rumex sanguineus
65. Glaucous Bulrush Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani
66. Knotted Figwort Scrophularia nodosa
68. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
69. Groundsel Senecio vulgaris
70. Spiny Milk-Thistle Sonchus asper
71. Field Milk-Thistle Sonchus arvensis
72. Smooth Milk-Thistle Sonchus oleraceus
73. Sea Club-Rush Scirpus maritimus
85. Red Clover Trifolium pratense
86. White Clover Trifolium repens
89. Wall Pennywort Umbilicus rupestris
91. Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis
92. Germander Speedwell Veronica chamaedrys
93. Buxbaum's Speedwell Veronica persica
94. Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca
95. Bush Vetch Vicia sepium
97. Sycamore Acer pseudoplanatus
101. Common Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna
102. Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior
104. Ivy Hedera helix
106. Common Privat Ligustrum vulgare
107. Honeysuckle/Woodbine Lonicera periclymenum
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
112. Durmast Oak Quercus robur
116. Common Sallow Salix cinerea
117. Crack Willow Salix fragilis
118. Common Elder Sambucus nigra
125. False Oat-Grass Arrhenatherum elatius
128. Wood Fls-Brome Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum
129. Cock's-Foot Grass Dactylis glomerata
130. Scutch Grass Elymus repens
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
133. Yorkshire Fog Grass Holcus lanatus
135. Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne
136. Comon Reed-Grass Phragmites arundinacea
137. Annual Meadow Grass Poa annua
141. Remote-Spiked Sedge Carex remota
142. Mdenhair Spleenwort Asplenium trichomanes
146. Polypody Fern (Hex) Polypodium interjectum

Zone E

Description: A thin belt of deciduous woodland, bordering the eastern side of the reserve. A stout stone and earth bank separates the lake from the woodland, while wedged between the two is a fresh water stream that keeps the ground damp and the air moist in the abutting woodland. The soil here is base-poor as is evident by the absence of base loving plant species. Some of the tree species present have attained a fine height or girth, viz. Oaks and Horse Chestnut. Most interestingly the outside portion of the dividing wall supports some halophytic plant species, while in contrast, the inner and top sections bear woodland plants! Toward the north-eastern end of the wood there is a marked tapering off of timber, while some marshy ground occurs here.

2. Wild Angelica Angelica sylvestris
3. Fools' Watercress Apium nodiflorum
10. Water Starwort Callitriche agg.
11. Lady's Smock Cardamine pratensis
15. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
17. Opposite -Leaved Gd Saxifrage Chrysosplenium oppositrifolium
20. Foxglove Digitalis purpurea
22. Short Fruited Willowherb Epilobium obscurum
23. Meadowsweet Filipendula ulmaria
25. Marsh Bedstraw Galium palustre
28. Herb Bennet Geum urbanum
31. Yellow Flag Iris pseudacorus
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
40. Marsh Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus uliginosus
41. Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi
42. Gipsywort Lycopus europeaus
45. Water Mint Mentha aquatica
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
58. Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula
59. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
63. Wood Dock Rumex sanguineus
64. Brookweed Samolus valerandi
66. Knotted Figwort Scrophularia nodosa
67. Marsh Ragwort Senecio aquaticus
73. Sea Club-Rush Scirpus maritimus
87. Sea Mayweed Tripleurospermum maritimum
89. Wall Pennywort Umbilicus rupestris
91. Common Valerian Valeriana officinalis
94. Tufted Vetch Vicia cracca
96. Common Dog Violet Viola riviniana
97. Sycamore Acer pseudoplanatus
101. Common Hawthorn Crataegus monogyna
102. Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior
103. Beech* Fagus sylvatica
104. Ivy Hedera helix
105. Holly Ilex aquifolium
106. Common Privat Ligustrum vulgare
107. Honeysuckle/Woodbine Lonicera periclymenum
110. Blackthorn Prunus spinosa
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
112. Durmast Oak Quercus robur
113. Common Dog Rose Rosa canina (s.s.)
114. Blackberry/Bramble Rubus fruticosus agg.
116. Common Sallow Salix cinerea
119. Woody Nightshade Solanum dulcamara
120. Common Furze/Gorse Ulex europaeus
122. Common Alder Alnus glutinosa
123.Horse Chestnut* Aesculus hippocastanum
126. Common Bent-Grass Agrostis capillaris
127. Fiorin Agrostis stolonifera
128. Wood Fls-Brome Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum
132. Common Flote Grass Glyceria fluitans
134. Creeping Soft-grass Holcus mollis
136. Comon Reed-Grass Phragmites arundinacea
138. Rough Stalked Meadow Grass Poa trivialis
140. False Fox-Sedge Carex otrubae
141. Remote-Spiked Sedge Carex remota
143. Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina
144. Hard Fern Blechnum spicant
145. Scaly Male Fern Dryopteris affinis
146. Broad Buckler Fern Dryopteris dilatata
148. Polypody Fern (Hex) Polypodium interjectum
149. Soft Shield Fern Polystichum setiferum
150. Bracken Fern Pteridium aquilinum
151. Field Horsetail Equisetum arvense

Zone F

Description: A wedge shaped strip of ground, for the most part dominated by marshy ground containing luxuriant vegetation. This zone is bordered to the west by the roadway, to the east by farmland (some of it also marshy), to the south by a combination of a farm-boreen and the reed-fringed lake margin, while to the north it peters out at a small bridge at the bottom of Bird's Hill. Along the roadway in the adjoining marshy ground many fine, mature trees of White Willow, and Crack Willow occur and are quite spectacular in appearance. Four naturalised plant species occur here also, namely Traveller's Joy, Winter Heliotrope, Montbretia and Three-cornered Leek. A Poplar Tree has been planted at the north end of the lake by the boreen, but it can hardly be considered naturalised. Woody Nightshade is common in this zone, as elsewhere in the reserve, the humid, moist conditions suiting it well. The presence of Grey Sedge, and Hart's-Tongue Fern along the roadway banks suggests that this zone is more base-rich than any other part of the reserve. The abundant weed species are confined to the areas of greatest disturbance, namely the roadway and farm-boreen.

1. Three-cornered Leek* Allium triquetrum
3. Fools' Watercress Apium nodiflorum
7. Common Daisy Bellis perennis
9. Greater Bindweed Calystegia sepium
12. Black Knapweed Centaurea nigra
13. Common Mouse-ear Chickweed Cerastium fontanum
14. Creeping Thistle Cirsium arvense
15. Marsh Thistle Cirsium palustre
16. Spear Thistle Cirsium vulgare
20. Foxglove Digitalis purpurea
21. Great Hairy Willowherb Epilobium hirsutum
22. Short Fruited Willowherb Epilobium obscurum
24. Goosegrass/Cleavers Galium aparine
27. Herb Robert Geranium robertianum
28. Herb Bennet Geum urbanum
32. Soft Rush Juncus effusus
34. Nipplewort Lapsana communis
35. Meadow Vetchling Lathyrus pratensis
36. Autumnal Hawkbit Leontodon autumnalis
39. Common Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus corniculatus
40. Marsh Bird’s FootTrefoil Lotus uliginosus
41. Ragged Robin Lychnis flos-cuculi
42. Gipsywort Lycopus europeaus
48. Hemlock Water -Dropwort Oenanthe crocata
50. Winter Heliotrope* Petasites fragrans
52. Ribwort Plantain Plantago lanceolata
53. Rat-tail Plantain Plantago major
55. Creeping Cinquefoil Potentilla reptans
57. Meadow Buttercup Ranunculus acris
58. Lesser Spearwort Ranunculus flammula
59. Creeping Buttercup Ranunculus repens
67. Marsh Ragwort Senecio aquaticus
68. Common Ragwort Senecio jacobaea
96. Common Dog Violet Viola riviniana
97. SycamoreAcer pseudoplanatus
100. Traveller's Joy* Clematis vitalba
101. Common Hawthorn Cataegus monogyna
102. Common Ash Fraxinus excelsior
104. Ivy Hedera helix
107. Honeysuckle/Woodbine Lonicera periclymenum
109 Poplar* Populus taxon
110. Blackthorn Prunus spinosa
111. Sessile Oak Quercus petraea
115. White Willow Salix alba
116. Common Sallow Salix cinerea
117. Crack Willow Salix fragilis
122. Common Alder Alnus glutinosa
124. Sweet Vernal Grass Anthoxanthum odoratum
125. False Oat-Grass Arrhenatherum elatius
126. Common Bent Grass Agrostis capillaris
127. Fiorin Agrostis stolonifera
128. Wood Fls-Brome Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum
129. Cock's-Foot Grass Dactylis glomerata
130. Scutch Grass Elymus repens
131. Red Fescue Grass Festuca rubra
133. Yorkshire Fog Grass Holcus lanatus
135. Common Rye-Grass Lolium perenne
136. Comon Reed-Grass Phragmites australis
137. Annual Meadow Grass Poa annua
138. Rough Stalked Meadow Grass Poa trivialis
139. Grey Sedge Carex divulsa
141. Remote-Spiked Sedge Carex remota
143. Lady Fern Athyrium filix-femina
144. Hard Fern Blechnum spicant
145. Scaly Male Fern Dryopteris affinis
146. Broad Buckler Fern Dryopteris dilatata
147. Hart's Tongue Fern Phyllitis scolopendrium
149. Soft Shield Fern Polystichum setiferum

Note: This report was made based on just two visits by Tony and is by no means exhaustive. We would encourage anyone recording any species of interest to send the records to: blananwilson [at] gmail.com